Please see the drop-down menu under Food Topics in the top navigation bar for links to pages on other food topics.
Know how. Know now.
From border to border in Nebraska, UNL Extension is making an incredible impact on the success of our state — its youth, its families, its farms and ranches, its communities, its economy. Please check these websites for more "know how, know now" information.
Compiled By: Julie A. Albrecht, Ph.D., Associate Professor
The Organism: Shigella are facultative anaerobic bacteria that produces an endotoxin referred to as a shiga toxin. The organism is fragile, easily killed by heat during cooking or processing.
Sources of the organism:
- Fecally contaminated water
- Food handler with poor personal hygiene practices
- Any food contaminated by a food handler with poor hygiene practices
- Contaminated water
- Salads (potato, tuna, shrimp, macaroni, chicken)
- Raw vegetables
Microorganism Characteristics: Gram-negative nonsporeforming facultative anaerobic rod-shaped bacteria which produces an endotoxin
- Temperature range: 10-40°C (50-104°F).
- Optimum Temperature: 37°C (98.6°F)
- pH range: Organisms do not survive below pH 4.5
- Salt tolerance: 5-6%
The Disease: Shigellosis, also known as bacillary dysentery, is caused by several bacteria of the genus Shigella. Numerous species of Shigella are associated with food borne illness outbreaks. Shigella sonnei is the major cause of shigellosis from food. Virulent Shigella organisms attach to and penetrate the epithelial cells of the intestine. After invasion, they multiply and spread to the epithelial cells.
- Abdominal cramps
- Stools may contain mucus or blood
- 12-48 hours
- Small numbers (10-100 cells) of viable Shigella cells consumed by a susceptible host.
Duration of symptoms:
- 4-7 days
- Proper hand washing after using the bathroom.
- Use properly treated water.
- Cook foods to appropriate temperatures.
- Chill food to 41ºF within 4 hours.